References and Further Reading 1. Nagarjuna's Life, Legend and Works Precious little is known about the actual life of the historical Nagarjuna.
References and Further Reading 1. Of those assembled, only one disciple Mahakashyapa Sanskrit: Eventually the transmission passed to a certain Bodhidharma c.
Recent scholarship has established that a mysterious figure named Bodhidharma was indeed in southern China in the fifth century proclaiming teachings based on the Lankavatara Sutra as well as a simplified but powerful form of dhyana.
After his death his disciples carried on his teachings, but most of them never founded lasting lineages. Eventually these teachings were transmitted to Hongrenthe Fifth Patriarch, who taught at Dongshan.
Hongren had a number of disciples who spread out through China, establishing their own schools where they taught their own versions of Chan.
Some died out but a few flourished, going on to record their histories to establish their particular pedigrees. In India, dhyana encompassed a wide variety of techniques for training the mind to attain the deep insight into reality necessary for awakening.
When Buddhism began making inroads into China in the first and second centuries CE, missionaries brought these techniques with them.
Dhyana study proved popular in some circles — in part because of its resemblance to Daoist meditation practices — but it was just one practice alongside of others, such as sutra study, devotional rituals and the performance of charitable works.
Only later did Chan become a self-conscious movement with a firm institutional base. By the sixth century, certain monasteries in the mountainous areas of central and southwestern China became known as places reserved for intense meditation training.
The masters at these centers taught methods so powerful that it was rumored that those willing to persevere could awaken in this very life.
As time went on several of these meditation masters gained loyal followings and tales of them spread as their disciples established their own monasteries. Nonetheless, this mythology tells us a lot about how Chan came to conceive itself as a distinct tradition, at once radically innovative and deeply conservative.
Biography As with many legendary figures, it is difficult to sort fact from fiction when it comes to Huineng. We have many sources of information on him but most were written long after his lifetime. In fact, scholars cannot even agree on the location of Dafan, the temple in which Huineng allegedly recited the Platform Sutra.
The earliest mention of Huineng comes from an inscription for a memorial pagoda in Faxing monastery dated Unfortunately, the actual inscription has not been preserved and so many historians deem it unreliable. Later records, of which there are many, probably bear little resemblance to real historical events, and actually contradict each other on certain details.
Later traditions concerning Huineng vary tremendously. He seems to go into hiding for several years only to reappear in Nanhai at a monastery presided over by Yinzong. One day after the Master had finished a lecture, Huineng overheard two monks arguing over whether the temple flag or the wind was moving.
Huineng abruptly injected himself into this discussion, declaring that in fact it was mind that was moving. Hearing of this, Yinzong sent for Huineng and, bowing to him, asked to be taught the dharma of Hongren. It was Yinzong who oversaw the giving of the tonsure to Huineng, the incident memorialized in the inscription mentioned above.
Some traditions speak of Huineng being summoned to the imperial capital by the emperor Zhongzong or possibly the empress Wu Zhao ca.
In any case, Huineng declined, preferring to spend his days in the mountains and forests preaching the dharma. He did, however, give the imperial envoy a dharma talk that jolted the messenger into an intense sudden realization.
Returning to the capital the envoy reported his experience to the emperor who issued an edict praising Huineng and bestowing special gifts upon him.
Our major source for information on Huineng is the autobiographical portion sections of the Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch, an immensely complicated text that has undergone numerous revisions over the centuries.
The earliest extant copy of this sutra, found in a cache of writings discovered in the Dunhuang Tun-huang caves in northwestern China, dates to around but it is corrupt and full of errors — probably the result of being copied from an earlier version by a semiliterate scribe.
However, Fahai does not appear anywhere else in Chan literature and his exact identity remains unknown.Nagarjuna (c. —c. ) Often referred to as "the second Buddha" by Tibetan and East Asian Mahayana (Great Vehicle) traditions of Buddhism, Nagarjuna offered sharp criticisms of Brahminical and Buddhist substantialist philosophy, theory of knowledge, and approaches to practice.
Nagarjuna's philosophy represents something of a watershed not only in the history of Indian philosophy but in. Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
The term was probably coined by Pythagoras (c. – BCE). Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, and systematic presentation.
After Augustine there were no major developments in ethics in the West until the rise of Scholasticism in the 12th and 13th centuries. Among the first significant works written during this time was a . A History of Muslim Philosophy Part 4.
The Middle-Roaders Chapter XXX AL-GHAZ ĀLĪTable of Contents: Metaphysics. Life. Method. Attack on the Philosophers. Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
The term was probably coined by Pythagoras (c. – BCE). Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, and systematic presentation. Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Confucianism developed from what was later called the Hundred Schools of Thought from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius (– BCE), who considered himself a recodifier and retransmitter of the theology.