The use of financial objectives, such as total sales or profitability, as the sole measure of performance often fails to provide information about the intangibles that drive success. Business professionals and researchers theorize that a more balanced approach to performance measurement includes both financial and non-financial objectives.
The reason is that central banks react to variables, such as inflation and the output gap, which are endogenous to monetary policy shocks. Endogeneity implies a correlation between regressors and the error term, and hence, an asymptotic bias.
In principle, Instrumental Variables IV estimation can solve this endogeneity problem.
In practice, IV estimation poses challenges as the validity of potential instruments also depends on other economic relationships. We argue in favor of OLS estimation of monetary policy rules. To that end, we show analytically in the three-equation New Keynesian model that the asymptotic OLS bias is proportional to the fraction of the variance of regressors accounted for by monetary policy shocks.
Using Monte Carlo simulation, we then show that this relationship also holds in a quantitative model of the U. As monetary policy shocks explain only a small fraction of the variance of regressors typically included in monetary policy rules, the endogeneity bias is small.
Using simulations, we show that, for realistic sample sizes, the OLS estimator of monetary policy parameters outperforms IV estimators.Generally speaking, one of the biggest problems associated with continuous improvement and problem solving is the selection of the most appropriate performance measures or performance metrics.
Financial performance measures are traditionally backward looking.
This is not suitable in today's dynamic business environment. The solution is to use both financial and non-financial performance indicators. The optimum system for performance measurement and control will include. In education. Performance measurement has been defined by Neely as "the process of quantifying the efficiency and effectiveness of past actions", while Moullin defines it as "the process of evaluating how well organisations are managed and the value they deliver for customers and other stakeholders”.
Discussion on the relative merits of these definitions appeared in several articles in the.
Non-financial performance measures are sometimes considered to be leading indicators of future financial performance, while current financial performance measures such as earnings or return on assets are commonly considered to . The effects of nonfinancial and financial measures on employee motivation to participate in target setting integrated model incorporating both nonfinancial measures and financial measures is also used to ascertain the relative importance of nonfinancial measures vis-à-vis financial measures in influencing employee motivation to participate.
Gap analysis requires managers to rank performance measures on at least two dimensions: their importance to strategic objectives and .