History[ edit ] InDavid Hartley first postulated that dreaming altered the associative planetary links within the brain during dreaming periods of dreams. The idea that sleep had a mentally restorative effect, sorting out and consolidating memories and ideas, was intellectually acceptable by the end of the 19th century.
The extremely depressed person feels much better if he goes without REM sleep for a night or two. The suicidally depressed patient may forget the idea of suicide for a few hours or days if he is deprived of REM for a night or two.
These basic observations have been confirmed many times since the s see the reading list below but the question as to how REM deprivation helps depression has been left unanswered.
Despite the dramatic beneficial effects on serious depression we still have no idea as to why REM deprivation alleviates, at least temporarily, major depression. This is a very surprising fact. You would think that any clue or lead on what kinds of treatment work for major depression would be followed up on with major pushes in the research arena backed up by major funding streams from the National Institutes of Health.
But the voices of depressed people, apparently, are not as loud as the voices of other health-related interest groups so funding for depression studies has never been adequate to the scale fo the problem. A recent study, however, has managed to throw some fascinating light on the relations between acute sleep deprivation and alleviation of depression.
In addition, this amplified reactivity was associated with a biased increase in the number of emotional stimuli judged as pleasant in the sleep-deprived group. In short, it appears that acute sleep deprivation increases reactivity in reward networks of the brain.
The older neurobiological literature on REM deprivation in animals suggested that motivational and drive related states were heightened during after REM deprivation as animals seemed much more attuned to reinforcing and pleasureable stimuli.
These facts led the older researchers to suggest that the normal function of REM was to dampen down pleasureable or motivational states or that REM functioned to re-tune catecholaminergic synapses throughout the brain.
In any case both the older literature and the newer data suggest that REM specializes in handling negative motivational and appetitive states and thus it should not be surprising that REM deprivation has a potent if temporary anti-depressant effect.
Nor should it be surprizing that REM indices are virtually always elevated in major depression. It seems that major depression is fueled at least in part by a kind of dis-inhibition of REM physiology.
Relevant articles Agargun, M. REM sleep, dream variables and suicidality in depressed patients.
The relationship between sleep and memory has been postulated and studied since at least the early 19th timberdesignmag.com, the cognitive process whereby experiences, learning and recognition are recalled, is a product of brain plasticity, the structural changes within synapses that create associations between stimuli. Stimuli are encoded within milliseconds; however, the long-term maintenance of. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, v44 n2 p Feb Sleep deprivation adversely affects the ability to perform cognitive tasks, but theories range from predicting an overall decline in cognitive functioning because of reduced stability in attentional networks to specific deficits in various cognitive domains or processes. Explanations for the effect of sleep deprivation on memory Several theories have been put forth to explain the effect sleep deprivation has on memory. One early study into neurochemical influences on sleep and memory was conducted with cats and demonstrated that sleep deprivation increased brain protein synthesis.
Psychiatry Research, Repetitive frightening dreams and suicidal behavior in patients with major depression. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 39, Nightmaressuicide attempts, and melancholic features in patients with unipolar major depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 98, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 4th ed.
American Psychiatric Association Press. Comparison of word frequencies by cognitive classes. Sleep and circadian rhythms in mood disorders.
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, sThe effects of sleep and memory are relatively unstudied in adolescents. Declarative memory is important in school performance and consequent social functioning in adolescents. This is the first study to specifically examine the effects of normal sleep on auditory .
Historical evidence suggests that sleep deprivation affects temporal memory, but this has not been studied systematically. We explored the effects of 36 hr of sleep deprivation on a neuropsychological test of temporal memory.
To promote optimal performance, the test was short, novel, and interesting, and caffeine was used to reduce “sleepiness”.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Primacy and Recency Effects for Taste Thomas A. Daniel and Jeffrey S. Katz Online First. However, researchers believe sleep is required for consolidation of a memory, no matter the memory type.
Without adequate sleep, your brain has a harder time absorbing and recalling new information. Sleep does more than help sharpen the mind.
Studies show that sleep affects physical reflexes, fine motor skills, and judgment, too. The Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition ® publishes original experimental and theoretical research on human cognition, with a special emphasis on learning, memory, language, and higher cognition.
The journal publishes impactful articles of . Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, v44 n2 p Feb Sleep deprivation adversely affects the ability to perform cognitive tasks, but theories range from predicting an overall decline in cognitive functioning because of reduced stability in attentional networks to specific deficits in various cognitive domains or processes.